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CORA L.V. Scott Hatch Tappan RICHMOND 
1840 - 1923

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Along with THE  PLANET  MARS  book on this page, do see Cora L.V. Richmond's book: MY EXPERIENCES WHILE OUT OF MY BODY AND MY RETURN AFTER MANY DAYS;  click. PART II. read after 1/2 way thro.. Cora published only PART I. of this work in 1915, soon after having her Out-of-Body Experiences.  During the six days while out of her body,  Cora was shown by her Guardian the work by a Martian with other embodied Martians here on earth--a work for a near future presentation of this book below: THE PLANET MARS AND ITS INHABITANTS.  Cora therefore witnessed this Martian preparation a few years before the  N. California, Alameda County Judge, J.L. Kennon began receiving this work. This could be the reason that Cora did not allow PART II. of  MY EXPERIENCES to be published until right after her death in January 1923; allowing no interference to be caused to the MARS futuristic spiritual, stand-alone work until it was safely published in February 1922.  On reading the work, it becomes clear, this is a glimpse of our spiritual destiny where decadent lower Spiritualism of today will be left behind when  'All KNOWLEDGE OF GOD COMES FROM WITHIN'  (see Chapter VIII).





Life An Attribute of the Entire Universe--Jupiter

Life is an attribute of the entire universe. Go forth on a moonless night and behold the firmament emblazoned with its myriad of scintillating stars, solar orbs, nebulae, world-systems in the making; the galactic circle, a jeweled band athwart the canopy of heaven; a seething maelstrom of light; countless suns in space; all expressing the one reality--Omniscience.

Only presumptuous man can question the Divine Intent in the creation of the infinite number of giant suns, stupendous world-systems, and place his particular world-unit at the center of the Cosmos.  Man contemplates this handiwork of God as a mere adjunct (more ornamental than useful) to his terrestrial environment, conceitedly thinking that the Father's only consideration is centered about himself.

As these life-giving orbs are countless in number, their orbits extending as they do to infinity in all directions, so is it with the habitable worlds in space. Some there are where life is not yet possible; worlds not yet far removed from their primary state; not long since condensed from fire mist; others where life has just begun; others on whose surfaces live teeming millions of God's creatures, just as you live and others have lived before you.  And there are other worlds whose life-cycle has been run; where intelligent life has ceased; where world-disintegration has set in, for this is in accordance with the universal law of growth and decay; a law that exempts neither the one-celled amoeba, nor the complex solar system whirling yonder in infinite space;
for all that comes from the Father into material expression must some day revert to its primordial state.

You have thus far received much concerning the idealistic conditions on Mars, whose planetary career is now reaching the zenith of its Cosmic cycle, and whose denizens have progressed to a degree of divine unfoldment not yet attained by many worlds.  It is necessary that you now receive some information relating to one of the less advanced planets belonging to the family of our sun in order that you may be able to learn by contrast, something of the wonders of God's work.

Jupiter, owing to its prodigious size, being nearly eleven times larger than your earth, but whose density is proportionately less, might well be styled the Master Planet of our system.

Jupiter is well blessed with satellites, having eight, a description of which is not necessary at this time. This planet is in, what might be styled, its primary evolutionary stage where life has just begun. This life has not evolved beyond the unicellular, or amoebic stage, and it will be only after the lapse of a long period of time, measured in geological units, when more complex organisms will appear, and many of these periods will come and go before this planet's surface will have attained a proper development for the propagation of intelligences capable of being classed with the denizens of your earth.

Long before that age arrives Jupiter's surface and atmosphere will undergo a tremendous change. Mighty planetary cataclysms will raise new mountain ranges; new continents will appear and the present land surfaces on this planet will sink to be covered with slime and water, to rise again in the centuries to come; for the Father's love and solicitude will provide, as it has in the case of all His celestial creations, a bountiful supply of stored up radiant energy, such as coal and petroleum, and other elements, for the comfort of those who will inhabit this giant among the worlds of this system in time to come.

Jupiter still retains much of its internal heat which gives this planet a very high mean temperature. Its atmosphere is still very dense, and owing to the very rapid evaporation of water, due to the extreme heat a constant cloud canopy covers its surface, which only dissipates occasionally in a slight degree, at which times only the sun penetrates to the surface of the globe.

By reason of the constant thick cloud canopy over the surface of Jupiter the planet is enveloped in deep gloom and darkness. As radiation is arrested to a marked degree by the clouds and atmosphere the temperature is very humid as well as hot. In this steam environment grow forests of fern and fungus-like trees and rank vegetal growths which will in the course of time be preserved as coal for the races destined to inhabit this planet. This vegetal growth is a flora that knows not bloom or seed, but is propagated by root and spores, a flora most primitive in type, but which will in time evolve through the law of mutation and adaptation into a diversified and useful vegetal kingdom for the races yet to come on the planet.

Owing to the tremendous gravitational pull on Jupiter present organisms are, and future ones will be, evolved along specially modified lines in order that they may encompass the least possible volume, just as the denizens of the extreme depths of your oceans have evolved. The modification is necessary in order that organisms may be able to function on a planet where the difference in gravity is as one is to three compared with your earth. In other words a minimum density is necessary to produce maximum lightness.

As there is no lesser or greater in the economy of nature (nature is God manifest), the most infinitesimal mote in the universe is as perfect within itself as is the most gigantic sun. Size is but relative. The anatomy of the midget is as perfect and complex as is that of the mammoth, and so there exist in the universe inhabited worlds that are relatively very small.

Circulating around the sun in orbits between Mars and Jupiter are numerous small planets or asteroids. One in particular, which is known to your astronomers as Vesta, is encompassed by an atmosphere and is inhabited by diminutive people and a correspondingly diminutive fauna and flora. The diameter of Vesta is about 500 miles, although your astronomers give its size, erroneously, as much smaller.

While the subject of these discourses is mainly spiritual, you are getting many scientific facts, and although not a volume of them, you are getting a proper understanding of the Cosmos.

The universe with all its suns and planets is analogous to a perfect watch. Each sun and planet moves over a prescribed orbit in a given time mathematically proportional to the movements of all the other celestial bodies, just as the geared wheels of the watch conform to their prescribed movements. The celestial bodies are seemingly actuated by invisible gears, and are held rigidly in their proper places by a mighty force whose power is incalculable. This is evidenced by the fact that all celestial bodies conform to that inexorable law, Divine Harmony.

That all planets describe equal areas in the same time in their ceaseless journeyings, and that the square of the time of their periods is as the cube of their distance from their common centers, is an exemplification of the reign of God's harmonious laws.

You must remember that empirical knowledge is but a perverted view of Truth. All the fleeting things of life are but dross; their apparent reality an illusion. Material life is but a projection from the cause world into the effect world. Man is but the reflection of a reality that transcends his material vision.

You are on the threshold of a great awakening on your planet which is yet in great darkness, but the dawn of a better day is nigh. Christ is coming into His kingdom which must be in the hearts of the people. His second coming means that He will come into your lives with the power of the Spirit. This can only become possible through an awakened understanding of spiritual laws. Although man on your earth is in great darkness it is not the darkness of Jupiter, which planet must undergo many changes before it reaches your evolutionary stage.

Communication between planets in our system and your earth will be realized in a short time, and the initial message will be from Mars. This event will herald a new era for the people of your earth for it will be an important factor in the breaking down of the medieval dogmatism of the past, a narrow-minded theolog built upon a perverted corruption of God's limitless universe; a universe narrowed down to your earth and the inhabitants thereof.

Man's presumptuousness and sophistry is in direct ratio to his ignorance, and that is one reason why materialism holds sway among a majority of your so-called learned scientists and the people generally. But the materialism of the masses is not so degenerating and destructive as the impossible dogmas entertained by your numerous religious sects who have made God, who is Infinite Love, an anthropomorphic monster.  These dogmas are priestly inventions created to frighten God's children; to make of man, created after the image of God, a crawling, servile creature, instead of what he really should be, the highest manifestation of the Divine, the culmination of God's handiwork.


The Risen Christ

Easter Sunday, April 4, 1920.

Your earth's inhabitants are celebrating today the resurrection of your Savior--by gratifying the desires of self.

We of Mars do not have such events to commemorate for we never crucified Him. We opened the door to His wonderful Truth.

Not one of your earth's inhabitants can perform the miracles Christ did, but we can.  Our leaders, who are our advisers, guides and spiritual teachers, are Christ-like men, who can do all the works that Christ and His disciples did.  He said. "These signs do follow them that believe," and we have never stopped believing.

Your condition is pitiful. There is nothing but darkness between you and the Truths Christ tried to give you. Christ is only an idea on your planet and not a reality in the hearts of your people. Their whole thought, for weeks past, has been devoted to their personal adornment, and in preparing festivals for this occasion.

In your churches, where they seem to observe the period of Christ's suffering, it is only a form. They go through their vain repetition of prayers, that have no soul in them, and your six weeks of so-called Lent is only a mockery of its real significance.

If you would live the Christ life you would not crucify Him daily in the flesh, but would come to that consciousness that He is risen in your soul. You are continually crucifying Christ all over your planet in the same way that you crucified Jesus Christ, for you either deny Him or pervert His Truth to suit your selfishness.

All of the people on Mars have lived on other planets before, except your earth. The earth has not advanced enough to be placed in the line of progression yet.  However, the time is near when you will experience that progression. It will be after you are high enough spiritually to receive word from the Martians through mediums. This work evidences the fact that you are beginning that experience now. Take hope, for after the obscure darkness must come the dawn. Your whole earth is now in terrible travail, but the result will be the birth of the new Christ Spirit.

You get glimpses now and then of the real Christ Life, but do you, or can you, realize what life on a planet is like when all the inhabitants live the Christ Life every day? That is why we have the wonderful manifestations of the Father's love in our intricate and delicate mechanisms, and in our utilization of Cosmic energy. It is thus that we receive the Father's wondrous gifts. But Mars never became what it is until God purified it by His Son's example and we accepted Him as our Savior with without murder. Your planet damned itself to many bloody aeons by the rejection of Him, and your Religion has been blood, blood, blood! In your last five years you have been given enough blood to drown all the martyrs you have given to your bloody god.

Your planet is in slavery. You are slaves to your conventionalities. They are like shackles on your souls; like bands of iron. And yet you cling to them until it seems you do not want freedom.

It is only Truth that will free you, and as long as you cling to false ideals, and sham systems you must expect to be slaves.

Pin your faith not in material money, but in spiritual wealth. "Take no heed of the morrow." Be of good cheer. Make the opening to the Spirit wide. He will enter!


Physical Environment the Result of Spiritual Causes
"For they have sown the wind and they shall reap the whirlwind." -Hosea 8: 7.

The Creator and dominator of the entire universe is Divine Mentality.

The only real actuality that confronts sentient beings is Mind. We are born, live, and have our being amidst physical surroundings that, in final analysis, are mere illusions. This idea is not new. It forms the basis of most systems of philosophy from the dawn of your civilization to the present day.

Our physical environment is the result of our mental attitude. Mars is blessed with a climatic tranquility that would surpass the understanding of an earth dweller. But this was not always so.

In proportion to the spiritual unfoldment of the inhabitants of a planet so is the degree of climatic tranquility enjoyed by them. This may, at first reading, appear far-fetched but it is nevertheless true.

Those who live on a material plane are immersed in the effect world. The dominating and primary influences that give rise to all material phenomena have their inception in the cause world,  the world of spirit. Hence, the turbulence of the elements originate, through the law of vibration, deep down in the mentalities of those who make up the population of a planet. Cloud bursts, severe windstorms, and other disturbances of nature are all adjuncts of the spirit of war and rapine.

When a race has discarded the pursuit of false ideals and comes into harmony with the Father then there occurs a corresponding change in its physical environment by reason of the vibratory influences at work. These influences have their inception in the mentalities of sentient beings who are doing the Father's work in the advancement of the races of men throughout the entire physical universe.

This same vibratory law is at work throughout all spiritual planes and a knowledge of this law was referred to by Christ when he said. "The kingdom of God is within you."

On Mars, owing to the high spiritual state of its inhabitants, who are in harmony with their Creator, climatic conditions are, compared with your world, most perfect. However, there was a time, measured in terms of your millions of years, when the elements on Mars were as agitated and capricious as they are today on our blood- stained globe. That was before man on Mars had enfolded spiritually.

As the Martians progressed and unfolded spiritually there occurred a subsidence in the roughness of the elements, and today our planet is blessed with a tranquility proportionate to the high mental state of its inhabitants.


Material Life a Lesson

At the expense of what may appear as painful reiteration it is my desire to impress upon the readers of this book this truth: Material life is necessary to unfold character; to develop the real self, the divine part of man; the only principle that endures forever'

There is a lesson in every phase of work; in every joy; in every sorrow. The lesson is Love. Until you have fully realized this truth, you will not become full heirs in the kingdom of God. "He that loveth is born of God."

Christ taught that the Kingdom was not of your earth, but that all material things were transitory and would ultimately vanish like mist.

The Story of Mars is a lesson to you in what may be accomplished towards a more harmonious relation with the Father; towards a truer realization of God's real kingdom. But, in any event, you should not idolize Mars' people for the Father's kingdom is more perfect. Mars' idealism is only a degree in the progress of the cosmic family of worlds. The soul must really strive for a higher goal.

The Martians, after ages of time, have mastered their natural passions in suppressing self, but they have other heights to scale. But he who conquers a sordid environment; he who rises from a black pool of iniquity; he who finds the Father's kingdom amidst an uncompromising warfare with sin, deserves more credit than he who is favored by circumstances of birth with more congenial surroundings and a higher spiritual environment.

You must remember that the individual on Mars, although living amidst an idealism, compared to your world, is beset with problems of life also. Our problems are more subtle and of a very different character than you are accustomed to deal with. Every plane of life has its complexities. If this were not so, the stimulus for growth would be weak indeed. Your most apparent problems are material only, to your understanding, since you are living under a most pernicious social and economic system; a system which puts a premium on selfishness.

All sentient entities are functioning in a universe of relativity and the perfectness of the Martian character and the ideal material and spiritual aspects of the planet are so by comparison only.

Martians are self conscious of their short-comings and aspire to higher things in God's kingdom, for progress is eternal, and the ultimate goal is never reached on the material plane of action, for the pinnacle of all progress is God. "Be ye perfect, even as your Father in heaven is also perfect."


A Martian Home

The home is the moulder of character in the individual, and in most cases the home influences tend to determine the future of the man.

Home influences are the most lasting and abide by the individual unto the end of his material career. All the habitations of the people of Mars are beautiful and a brief description of one will give the reader an understanding of the other millions of homes on the planet.

I will take you into a Martian home in the city of Urid the Beautiful.

The rooms are large and commodious. Sunlight, which has been filtered through translucent glass to temper and rob it of its glare,  floods every room.

There are no stairs to climb, for the five or six rooms, depending on the size of the family, form a rectangle with a court in the center. There is a fountain in the center of the court and beautiful flowers grow in profusion. Birds of vivid plumage fill the air with their song.

In one of the large rooms a mother sits at a sewing machine making a garment, for the Martians use these machines too, although they are a great improvement over those used by you. Not all the clothing is made in the homes, but much of it is, and this is easily understood when you recall that the Martians are true artists and possessed of great originality.

The mother's attention is now and then centered on a very small child who sits on a velvet carpet. This carpet would be a most wonderful acquisition to the home of a man of wealth on your earth. It has a soft fluffy pile two inches thick and makes a most comfortable floor for the baby to play upon.

This baby is about eighteen months old and plays with toys just as your earth babies do.

A beautiful young girl enters the room. She is dressed in a simple becoming gown of white, and she carries a lot of books. After removing her hat and putting the books away she begins to tell her mother of the wonderful things learned at school that day. She is studying the harmony of music, particularly the relationship between electromagnetic vibrations and music.

The mother shows much interest and from her store of knowledge clears up many doubtful points in the mind of the daughter. So the hours pass quickly when father comes home and joins the family circle.

The walls of the room are white and are broken here and there by beautiful tapestries. All the furnishings of the room express beauty through that artistry that is born of love.

There is a lack of useless furniture and bric-a-brac in the room.  A table, chairs and a receptacle for books and other necessities complete the furnishings. But this simplicity in the matter of furniture adds a spirit of freedom to the home.

There is no kitchen drudgery in store for the housewife. The family repair to a dining room where food is served by the mother. This food has just arrived from a central depot in a mechanical contrivance which runs underground. After the meal the soiled dishes are returned in the same manner in which they were conveyed to the home.

Later in the evening the family prepare to attend a lecture or musical concert nearby. Or perhaps a visit to some distant point is considered, in which case an airship is ordered from a public aerodrome.


As harmony is an expression of the Father, its coexistent, art, is an expression of the laws of rhythm through the individual when permanently registered in a material way.

The more a created object conforms to the laws of harmony the more pleasing it is to the eye.

The artist gives expression to his soul within with paint brush, chisel or loom, and the quality of his production is proportionate to the development of his spiritual nature.

All of God's creatures are artists, although only a small percentage of his evolutionary creatures are able to express materially that which lies hidden in the soul. Hence, a beautifully executed painting, statue or tapestry appeals to and interests most everyone, even though few are able to execute their own artistic impressions.

The reason for this is that the average physical makeup is defective and therefore affords a poor vehicle for the expression of the real entity. Then again, artistic ability is a question of individual development.

Primordial man's efforts to depict that which delighted his soul were crude, indeed, compared to the creations of your world's foremost artists today. But in a relative sense only, for the state of your art is as far behind the art of the Martians as are the carvings of your prehistoric cavemen behind the productions of your Michael Angelos.

As man unfolds spiritually there is a corresponding advance in his artistic point of view.

This is evidenced by the fact that art has flourished more on your earth among those races, and individuals, who are spiritually inclined. The products of the monastery and cloister in the middle ages are witness to this fact.

Amongst a materially inclined people, whose selfish instincts have stultified their souls; a people whose ultimate goal is the acquisition of material things; a people whose only ambition is to satisfy self; a people whose ideas of real happiness are the pursuit of material pleasures, art has little place, except as a fad.

This is the condition today in many parts of your world, and especially so on your western continent. Prize fights and the sensualities of the stage interest many more people than do art galleries and the beauties of nature.

The fact that God is the Supreme Artist of the universe can be established not only with the microscope, but with one's natural eyes. Divine Art is expressed in every atom comprising the universe, and poor indeed, is he in spiritual gifts who fails to feast his eyes on God's handiwork.

As art is an expression of God's law of harmony it can be said that its development on Mars has been a stimulus to the development of every line of planetary activity and enters into every phase of Martian social and industrial system.

As everyone of God's creatures is an artist in the making, every Martian is a developed artist. Hence, every product of the loom or forge on our planet is an artistic production and reflects in a material way the soul of its creator.

The incentive before the Martian is to work for the pleasure of working, which in ultimate analysis is God's work. Of course, such a system of industrial activity would be impossible among a partially developed people such as your earth race is.

Art on Mars typifies man's spiritual and material progress on this, planet. This planet's Past history and present achievements are woven into the products of the looms. The warp and woof of our beautiful tapestries, so much in evidence in every home, express the spirituality of the Martian people, as do also the creations of the Martian sculptors and the works of those who use brush and paint.

Some of the most beautiful productions of Martian art in painting, sculpture, or tapestry depict the scenes or various episodes incident to Christ's visit to Mars ten thousand years ago. They show many wonderful works of the Master but we do not call them miracles for, as later art shows, the leaders of Martian spiritual attainment were and are true disciples and do also the works of the Master.

Mars' past has been one of achievement, spiritually, and naturally in a material way also, so when the Martian artist weaves the story of the past in his loom there are no misgivings, for the Martian past is not fraught with hate, sin and suffering.


Scientific Sophistry
"For we are of yesterday, and know nothing because our days upon earth are a shadow." --Job 8:9.

The term "Scientific Sophistry" well fits your multitude of theories concerning Truth.

Science, which connotes a higher wisdom of hidden things, has degenerated on your earth from its original purpose (the overthrow of ignorance and superstition and the development among intelligent beings of a near approximation of Ultimate Truth) to an orthodox dogmatism which is today on a par with the unreality which this self-same science has sought to eliminate from the shallowness of the human mind.

It is quite true that the modern scientific method of investigation: that is, along the lines of observation, followed by the formation of a theory, and finally by demonstration, has resulted in the release of millions of souls from a darker thralldom than that which now besets them, but, never the less, the human race on your planet now undergoing its probationary experience, is to be pitied for its blindness in matters of real import; namely, spiritual truths.

Your scientific method instead of leading you onward towards the central sun of spiritual enlightenment, has so beclouded your vision, that your race today, that is, the so-called enlightened and learned portions of your population, have been deflected from the main path, and they will soon find themselves pursuing an illusionary will-o'-the-wisp.

Another result of the adoption of the modern scientific method has been the tendency of those endeavoring to bring light into the dark nooks and crannies of human existence, to immerse themselves in an abysmal materialism from which rescue is almost hopeless.

This condition is the result of a loss of spiritual vision and the final effort on the part of scientists to explain the riddle of human existence in accordance with a cleverly thought out, but most amazingly deficient, mechanistic conception of life.

Since the inception of modern science on your earth, based on the scientific method of investigation, its devotees adopted a spirit of skepticism concerning all problems of human activity not susceptible to measurement with the foot rule, or analysis with the test tube, with the result that the newer science of psychology was invented to supply a reasonable and material explanation for the subtle and mystifying phenomena of the human mind.

That the conceivers of this science of psychology have been successful is attested by the many remarkable explanations given to account for every-day manifestations of human and animal mentality.

I will venture to say that this idea applies to all branches of modern science, as there seems to be no class of phenomena in the entire universe, whether in the realm of chemistry, physics or psychology but what can be clearly elucidated to the satisfaction of all scientists with the aid of an adequate terminology. So, today your science, in final analysis, has degenerated into a system of clever word juggling.

It is true that there are today in the ranks of your foremost investigators honest and God inspired men who are seeking Truth. Their names and their achievements will be treasured by a grateful posterity, and it is to be regretted that their declarations, based upon tireless investigation and honest opinion, are derided by their fellow workers in the realm of Truth. All of your scientific theories are based upon certain postulates that in time are out of agreement with observed facts and you are compelled to cast these postulates aside, adopt others and theorize anew. This fruitless search for Truth must go on until a divergence  is made from the blind trail and the right path  is found that will lead you to the ultimate goal. Be not surprised then that  the revelations in this book will meet with the usual criticisms launched at every new idea of Truth that has been given to your world from the time man first walked erect and beheld the stars in the firmament of God.

Error must, and will dissolve presently in the presence of Truth, which will abide with you for all time. Help hasten the day of the Lord.

(The End)


The following facts about the planet Mars have been gleaned from the works of the late Professor Percival Lowell of the Flagstaff, Arizona, Observatory, who devoted his entire life to a study of this most interesting planet. The same can be compared to the statements made in the general text which were given through Mrs. X-, the medium, while in a trance state.

The first 39 paragraphs form an analysis of Dr. Lowell's "Mars and Its Canals," 1906, and will give the reader a clear and most comprehensive idea of the existing knowledge of Mars and why Dr. Lowell contended this planet was inhabited by intelligent beings farther advanced in civilization than we of this earth.

(1) Mars turns on its axis in 24 hours, 37 minutes, 22.65 seconds, with reference to the stars, and in 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35.05 seconds, with regard to the sun. Its day, therefore, is only about 40 minutes longer than ours.

(2) Its axis is tilted to the plane of its orbit by about 23 degrees, 54 minutes (most recent
determination). This gives the planet's seasons almost the counterpart of our own in character but in length nearly double ours, for

(3) Its year consists of 687 of our days, or 669 of its own.

(4) Polar caps are plainly visible which melt in the Martian summer to form again in the Martian winter, 'thus implying the presence of a substance deposited by cold.

(5) As the polar caps melt, they are bordered by a blue belt, which retreats with them. This excludes the possibility of their being formed by carbon dioxide, and shows that of all the substances we know the material composing them must be water.

(6) In the case of the southern cap, the blue belt has widenings in it in places. These occur  where the blue-green areas bordering upon the polar cap are largest.

(7) The extensive shrinkage of the polar snows shows their quantity to be inconsiderable and points to scanty deposition due to dearth of water.

(8) The melting takes place locally after the same general order and method, Martian year after year, both in the south cap and

(9) In the north cap. This evidenced by the recurrence of rifts in the same place annually in each. The water thus let loose can, therefore, be locally counted on.

(10) That the south polar cap is given to greater extremes than the north one, implies again, in view of the eccentricity of the orbit and the tilt of the axis, that deposition in both caps is light.

(11) The polar seas at the edges of the caps being temporary affairs, the water from them must be fresh.

(12) The melting of the caps on the one hand and their reforming on the other affirm the presence of water vapor in the Martian atmosphere of whatever else that air consists.

(13) Since water vapor is present of which the molecular weight is 18, it follows from the kinetic theory of gases, that nitrogen, oxygen, and carbonic acid, of molecular weights 28, 32 and 38 respectively, are probably there too owing to being heavier.

(14) The limb light bears testimony to this atmosphere.

(15) The planet's low albedo (reflecting power) points to a density for the atmosphere very much less than our own.

(16) The apparent evidence of a twilight goes to confirm this.

(17) Permanent markings show upon the disk,  proving that the surface itself is visible.

(18)  Outside of the polar caps the disk is divided into red-ochre and blue-green regions. The red-ochre stretches have the same appearance as our deserts seen from afar.

(19) And behave as such, being but little affected by change.

(20) The blue-green areas were once thought to be seas, but they cannot be such, because they change in tint according to the Martian season and the area and the amount of the lightening is not offset at the time by corresponding darkening elsewhere;

(21) Nor by any augmentation of the other polar cap as precipitation into cloud. it cannot, therefore, be due to shift of substance.

(22) Furthermore, they are all seamed by lines and spots darker than themselves which are permanent in place; so that there can be no bodies of water on the Planet.

(23) On the other hand, their color, blue-green, is that of vegetation; this regularly fades out, as vegetation would, to ochre for the most part, but in places changes to a chocolate brown.

(24) The change that comes over them is seasonal in period, as that of vegetation would be.

(25) Each hemisphere undergoes this metamorphosis in turn.

(26) That it is recurrent is proof positive of an atmosphere.

(27) The changes are metabolic, since those in one direction are later reversed to a restoration of the original status. Anabolic as well as catabolic processes go on there; i. e., growth as well as decay takes place. This proves them of vegetable origin.

(28) The existence of vegetation shows that carbonic acid, oxygen and undoubtedly nitrogen, are present in the Martian atmosphere, since plants give out oxygen and take in carbonic acid gas.

(29) The changes in the dark areas follow upon the melting of the polar caps, not occurring until after that melting is under way;

(30) And not immediately then, but only after the lapse of a certain time, (5 days).

(31) Though not seas now, from their look the dark areas suggest old sea bottoms, and when on the terminator (edge) appear as low depressions (whether because really at a lower level or because of less illumination, is not certain).

(32) That they are now the parts of the planet to support vegetation hints the same past office, as water would naturally drain into them. That such a metamorphosis should occur with planetary ageing is in keeping with the kinetic theory of gases.

(33) Terminator observations prove conclusively that there are no mountains on Mars (over 3000 feet) but that the surface is surprisingly flat.

(34) But they do reveal clouds which are usually rare and are often, if not always dust storms.

(35) White spots are occasionally visible lasting unchanged for weeks, in the tropic and temperate regions, showing that the climate is apparently cold.

(36) But at the same time proving that most of the surface has a temperature above the freezing point.

(37) In winter, the temperate zones are more or less covered by a white veil, which may be hoar frost or may be cloud.

(38) A spring haze surrounds the north polar cap during the weeks that follow its most extensive melting.

(39) Otherwise the Martian sky is perfectly clear, like that of a dry and desert land.

(40) "Conclusions," page 376, "Mars and Its Canals." That Mars is inhabited by beings of some sort we may consider as certain, as it is uncertain what those beings may be. The theory of the existence of intelligent life on Mars may be likened to the atomic theory in chemistry in that in both we are led to the belief in units which we are unable to define, but though in neither case can we tell anything of the bodily form of its units, we can predicate a good deal about their works. Apart from the general fact of intelligence implied by the geometric character of their canal construction, is the evidence as to its degree by the cosmopolitan extent of the action. Girdling the globe and stretching from pole to pole, the Martian canal system not only embraces their whole world, but is an organized entity. Each canal joins another, which in turn connects with a third, and so on over the entire surface of the planet. This continuity of construction posits a unity of interest. Now, when we consider that though not so large as the earth, the world of Mars is only 4200 miles in diameter and therefore contains something like 212,000,000 square miles, the unity of the purposes acquires considerable significance. The supposed vast enterprises of the earth look small beside it, none of them but become local in comparison, gigantic as they seem to us to be.

(41) The first thing that is forced on us in conclusion is the nationally intelligent and non bellicose character of the community which could thus act and unite throughout its globe.

(42) War is a survival among us from savage times and affects now chiefly the boyish and unthinking element of the nation. The wisest realize that there are better ways for practicing heroism and there are more certain ways of insuring the survival of the fittest. It is something a people outgrow. But whether they practice peace or not, nature in its evolution eventually practices it for them, and after enough of the inhabitants of the globe have killed each other off, the remainder must find it more advantageous to work together for the common good.

(43) Whether increasing common sense or increasing necessity was the spur that drove the martians to this eminently sagacious state we can not say, but it is certain that reached it they have, and equally certain that if they had not they must all have died. When a planet has attained to the age of advancing decrepitude, and the remnant of its water resides simply in its polar caps, they can only be effectively tapped for the benefit of the inhabitants when arctic and equatorial people are one. Difference of policy on the question means
nothing short of death. Isolated communities cannot there be sufficient unto themselves; they must combine to solidarity or perish.

(44) We perceive then, that considered a  prior, the possibilities of life on a planet is merely a question of the planet's size; and then pursuantly that the character of that life is a matter of the planet's age. And age again is a question of size. For the smaller its mass the quicker the body cools, and with a planet growing cold means, growing old.

(45) "Mars, An Abode of Life," page 142. The evidence of observation thus bears out what we might suspect from the planet's (Mars) smaller size: That it is much further along in its planetary career than is our earth. This ageing in its own condition must have its effect upon any life it may previously have brought forth. That life at the present moment would likely be of a high order. For whatever its actual age, any life now existent on Mars must be in the land stage of its development, on the whole much higher than on earth.  And more than this, it should probably have gone much farther if it exists at all, for in its evolving of terra firma, Mars has far outstripped the earth. Mars' surface is now all land.

(46) The struggle for existence in other planets' decrepitude and decay tend to evolve intelligence to keep up with circumstances growing more and more adverse. But furthermore, the solidarity that the conditions prescribe would conduce to a breadth of understanding sufficient to utilize it. Communication over the whole globe is made not only possible, but obligatory.

(47) Page 148. In regard to their width (canals), it would be nearest the mark to say they have none at all. For they have been found narrower and narrower as the conditions of scanning have improved. By careful measurements at Flagstaff it has been shown that the smallest appear as they should were they a mile across. The reason so slender a filament is visible is due to its length, this probably because of the number of retinal cones that are struck.

(48) Page 140. About 100 inches of snow
falls on the caps at Mars. This would mean 10 inches of water. The south cap of Mars covers 96 degrees at its greatest, which makes it 1-5 of the whole surface of the planet.

(49) The amount of water on earth is 189,000 times more than on Mars.

(50) Page 157. The oases observed by Lowell on Mars in 1892 were called lakes by Professor Packering, although the former was of a contrary opinion and concluded they were probably centers of population and agriculture.

(51) Concise Knowledge Library, page 298, volume on Astronomy. The diameter of Mars is 4200 miles; its surface is nearly 2-7, its volume 1-7 those of the earth, but in consequence of its inferior mean density nine such spheres would go to make up the mass of the earth. The gravity on Mars compared to our earth is as 38 to 100. A man could leap there a stile 9 feet 4 inches in height with no more effort than it would cost us to leap over a twofer fence.

(52) The planet's rotation is performed in 24 hours, 37 minutes on an axis deviating from the vertical by 24 degrees 50 minutes, hence its seasons resemble our own, excepting they are twice as long, for the Martian year is 687 days.
Page 307. Water boils at probably 115 degrees on Mars on account of the barometric pressure, which implies that water evaporates rapidly.

(53) The atmosphere can boast no more than 1-7 of our density.

(54) In the pure sky scarcely veiled by its atmosphere, the sun diminished to less than half its size at our horizon, probably exist its coronal streamers and prominences as a regular part of its noontide glory; atmospheric circulation proceeds so tranquilly as not to trouble the repose of the land in which it seemeth always afternoon. No cyclones traverse its surface, only mild trade winds flow towards the equator and supply for the volumes of air gently lifted by the power of the sun, to carry reinforcements of water vapor north and south.

(55) Page 306, Ibid. Two moons on Mars, discovered August 17, 1917, not more than 10 miles in diameter. Names, Demos and Phobos-----"Fear and Panic," taken from the Iliad. Demos revolves in 30 hours and 18 minutes at a distance of 14,600 miles from the center of Mars. And since the planet rotates in 24 hours, 37 minutes, the diurnal motion of the sphere from the East to West is so nearly neutralized by the orbital circulation of the satellite from west to east that nearly 132 hours lapse between its rising and its setting. During the interval it changes four times from full to new, and vice versa. Light received on Mars is 1-1200 of full moonlight.

(56) Phobos is more effective in illumination, because it is larger and less distant. At the Martian equator its brightness is equal to 1-60 of that of the moon, but beyond 69 degrees of latitude it is permanently shut out from view by the curvature of the globe. It is 3700 miles from the surface of Mars. The period of Phobos is only 7 hours, 30 minutes, or less than 1-3 of the time of rotation of Mars, its primary. It rises in the west and sets in the east, coursing across the heavens in 11 hours, during which interval accomplishes one entire cycle of its phases, and gets through half another.



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1840 - 1923

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